If you can't explain it simply, then you don't know it well enough. — Albert Einstein


Power System Security

Author: Vaishnav Chathayil is pursuing his B.Tech. in Electrical and Electronics engineering at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.

The sole objective of any power system network is to transmit power within its acceptable limit. The network should also work or stay under its limits event under any contingency. Contingencies may be of any type:

  1. Generator outage
  2. Line outage

Thus, irrespective of the issue evolved in a network, the power transfer between generating units and its loads must be “secure”.
The following article deals with what power system security means and how a power system network is classified into various states of operation.

What does Power System Security mean?

Power System Security may be defined as: The ability of a power system network to withstand contingencies(changes) and remain in its secure state or operate within its acceptable limits.

Various parameters may be taken into consideration and each have their own constraints. Violation of any such constraints may deviate the network’s secure operation. The constraints to be met for a secure operation are:

Inequality Constraints:
Pgimin ≤ Pgi ≤ Pgimax
Vimin ≤ Vi ≤ Vimax
Qgimin ≤ Qgi ≤ Qgimax
fmin ≤ f ≤ fmax
Pgi - real power generated from ith unit
Vi - voltage magnitude
Qgi - reactive power generated from ith unit
f - frequency

Equality Constraints:

Total Generated Power from all the units = Power demand + Power loss

If these constraints are met irrespective of any disturbance or change in the system, then the network is in secure operation.

Functions of Power System Security

The two functions that are taken care of under power system security are:
  1. Security Control: Make sure all the parameters are within their limits.
  2. Security Assessment: Detects the change in the parameters and identifies in which state the system is operating in.

System State Classification

Dyliacco’s classification:

In 1968, Dyliacco was the first one to introduce the classification of states in power system security. The operating states were classified into:
  1. Preventive State: this state basically highlights the secure operation of the system. It states that the system is working under its parameter limits and is also capable of withstanding the contingencies that occurs. Thus the operator on analyzing the situation should take preventive measures in advance and let the system not deviate from its state even during the contingency.
  2. Emergency State: This state indicates that the system constraints has been violated, I.e., it is not operating in its limits.
  3. Restorative State: In this state power transfer does not take in some parts due to outage I.e., contingency occurs in some parts of the system. Thus necessary action is to be taken to deviate it back to the normal state.

Dyliacco’s classification Power System Security

L.H. Fink and K Carlsen’s classification:

In 1978, the next type of state classification was suggested by Fink and Carlsen. In their classification the operating states are of 5 types:
  1. Preventive
  2. Alert
  3. Emergency
  4. Extreme
  5. Restorative

The following state transition diagram can be used to explain the flow that take place.

Normal00The system is secure and all constraints are met
Alert0 0 When the constraints are on the verge of violation,I.e., the operator is notified to foresee contingency
Emergency0 1 When inequality limits are violated
Extreme1 1 When both equality and inequality limits are violated
Restorative1 0 The inequality limit violation has been sorted but the load demand is yet to be satisfied.

*EC= 0 (equality constraint is met)
IC=0 (when inequality constraint is met)
Each becomes 1 when both are not met

In the extreme state it is the situation where blackouts occur and restoring it back to normal state may take hours or even days. Thus maximum the operator tries to deviate it from that state.

L.H. Fink and K Carlsen’s classification Power System Security


A governor in general refers to:

A device that is used to sense the quantity (that is proportional to speed) and regulates the speed of a machine.

There are many types of governors used in many applications. One of which we will be focusing in this article is the Fly ball Governor.

Turbine Governing System:

Turbine Governing System
Turbing Governing System (Credit: Vaishnav Chathayil)

Where, H.P. Oil refers to High Pressure Oil
NOTE: Point E is always fixed.
The turbine governing system consists of the following parts:
  1. SPEED CHANGER: This part of the system is used to provide a constant power setting to the turbine in order to get a constant output under steady state condition.
    It has a lever that can be lowered or raised. Changing the position of the lever changes the position of the Steam Inlet valve.
    NOTE: Changing the position of the lever does not alter the position of the fly balls.
  2. GOVERNOR MECHANISM: In this governing system a Fly ball Governor is used. It is also called a centrifugal Governor. This part of the system senses the change in frequency.
  3. HYDRAULIC AMPLIFIER: It has two main sub parts:
    • Pilot Valve
    • Piston Arrangement
    The amplifier also has an inlet through which High Pressure Oil is let in.
  4. LINKAGE MECHANISM: This is the most important part of the system as, based its movement the piston changes and also it controls the position of the Steam Inlet Valve.

Working of Turbine Governing System

The working of this system can be considered in two cases:
  • CASE 1: When the point B is fixed
  • CASE 2: When the point A is fixed
Let us see in detail what happens in each case.


Depending on the demand (load) the lever at the speed changer is varied. Let us see the case when the load high as a result more steam need to be let in to increase the mechanical input to the generator. The lever lowered and point A moves downward. Notice that B is fixed, the downward movement of A leads to an upward movement of C and D as well. Point D is in turn connected to the pilot valves. Now, when D moves upwards, the upper pilot valve opens and let the High pressure in to push piston in the Hydraulic Amplifier downward.

The piston is connected to the Steam Valve on the upper end, and it opens thus letting in the steam. Hence, the needed mechanical input is provided to meet the demand.


Now the power system is under steady state condition. But, it is seen that the load decreases. This results in a change in frequency in the system. We know that when there is an increases in load the frequency increases and this change is sensed by the governor in the governing system.

The fly ball governor works in such a way that:
  1. If there is an increase in frequency (indicates increase in shaft speed) the fly balls move outward.
  2. A decrease in frequency (indicates decrease in shaft speed) the fly balls move inward.

Consider a case when the load is reduced then it results in increase in frequency which results in the outward movement of the fly balls. On moving outwards the point B is pushed downwards that further results in pulling the points C and D downward. Now, when D moves downwards, the lower pilot valve opens and lets the High pressure in to push piston in the Hydraulic Amplifier upward thus closing the Steam Valve and reducing steam input.

Hence, reducing the surplus mechanical input provided.


Change in load Speed Fly ball Point B Point C & D Inside Hydraulic Amplifier Input Steam Valve
Increases Decreases Move outward Downwards Downwards Upper valve moves upwards Open
Decreases Increases Move inward Upwards Upwards Lower valve moves upwards Close
Thus, this is how the steam input to the turbine is controlled during the variation of loads.
Author: Vaishnav Chathayil is pursuing his B.Tech. in Electrical and Electronics engineering at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.


Loads are variable parameters and they never remain constant. Based on the demands their intake varies. As a result, the power generated by the alternator needs to meet these demands.

Load Frequency control is a method that helps in maintaining the frequency of the network at its rated value i.e., 50Hz in India. This article deals with the process that goes about when the load varies in various cases.

Let us take an example,
Consider the initial state to be as follows,

Load connected to the bus = 200MW
Power generated = 200MW

Now it is observed that the,
Which means it leads to the stable operation of the system.

Now the frequency will also be at its rated value. Moreover, the machine (Synchronous Generator) will run at its synchronous speed.

But, as we mentioned earlier the load of the system is never a constant. Thus there are two possibilities,


Now let us see the detailed effects of each case.


Consider the demand increases and the load connected to the bus changes to 300MW. Now the values are,

Load connected to the bus = 300MW
Power generated = 200MW
Now it is observed that the
As a result the following occurs:
  1. When it is observed that 100MW is required from the load side, the energy that is needed is supplied by the stored kinetic energy of the machine. The K.E. is produced by the rotating parts of the machine:
    Kinetic energy of  synchronous generator
    K.E-Kinetic Energy (J/joules)
    I-Moment of Inertia (is a constant)
    ω - Angular velocity (rad/sec)
    Thus, 100MW is supplied by the stored K.E and its value decreases.
  2. As observed in the equation 1, the,
    K.E.∝ ω2
    Thus, when K.E. decreases, the speed of the machine also decreases.
  3. The speed of the machine and its frequency are related by the relation,
    speed of synchronous machine

    Thus, when the speed decreases, it, in turn, reduces the frequency and if the new frequency is fnew, then,
    fnew < 50 Hz
    Which not acceptable for a stable operation.


Consider the demand decreases and the load connected to the bus changes to 150MW. Now the values are,

Load connected to the bus = 150MW
Power generated = 200MW
Now it is observed that the,

As a result the following occurs:
  1. When it is observed that 50MW is produced in surplus the generator side, the energy that is needed is absorbed is added to the stored kinetic energy of the machine.
    The reason is, there needs to be a balance in energy (due to the Law of Conservation of energy).
    Thus, 50MW is added to the stored K.E and its value increases.
  2. As observed from the equation 1, when K.E. increases, the speed of the machine also increases.
  3. From equation 2, when the speed increases, it in turn increases the frequency and if the new frequency is fnew, then,
    fnew > 50 Hz
    Which is also not acceptable for stable operation.
Now, we have observed that,

Change in load ⇒ Change in Power Generated ⇒ Change in rotor speed ⇒ Change in Frequency

The change in frequency can be sensed using a device called a Governor. The Governor detects the change in frequency and then insists to change the Steam valve position.

This is done because by adjusting the valve position based on the change in frequency, we can change the steam input to the turbine. As the turbine is mechanically coupled to the Synchronous Generator, by adjusting the speed of the turbine it in turn adjust the mechanical input to the rotor.


Change in load Change in frequency Steam valve position Steam input Mechanical input to generator Power generated by the generator
Increases Decreased Open more Increased Increased Increased
Decreases Increased Close more Decreased Decreased Decreased

Now adjusting the mechanical input to the rotor, it also adjusts the Power Generated and this is how the change in load is met and the frequency is adjusted back to its rated value.

[Also Read: Synchronization of Alternator]

Author: Vaishnav Chathayil is pursuing his B.Tech. in Electrical and Electronics engineering at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.


A power system network mainly comprises the following:

  1. Generation
  2. Transmission
  3. Distribution
  4. Utilization

There are a number of ways one can adopt to generate electricity. It can be generated using:

  1. Renewable resources: Water, Wind, Solar etc.
  2. Non- renewable resources: Coal is a commonly used resource for the generation of power.

In this article, we would be concentrating on the functioning of a Thermal Power Plant and how the frequency for the system powered by this power plant is controlled.


In thermal power plants, heat energy is converted into electric energy. The basic process that goes on is: Water is heated that results in the production of steam. The steam that is produced is injected to push the turbine that is mechanically coupled to a generator and in turn, a voltage is obtained at its terminals. After this process, the steam is then condensed back to liquid state with the help of a condenser and recycled to repeat the process. This process is known as the Rankine Cycle.

There are many types of Thermal Power Plants:

  1. Coal-fired
  2. Petroleum fired
  3. Nuclear
  4. Geothermal
  5. Natural Gas-fired
  6. Solar Thermal Electric
load frequency control


Now, we have seen what a thermal power plant is and what processes are going on inside it. Next, we shall learn the method adopted to control the intake of steam in order to control the terminal voltage generated by the generator.

The electric power generated by the electric generator is transmitted via transmission lines and then is supplied to various Load centers. The generator normally used is known as an Alternator or Synchronous Generator.

A Synchronous generator is a doubly excited machine where it has two sets of windings, One, that is wound on the rotor and is excited with a DC Source. Second, that is wound on the stator from where the output electric power is tapped.

The power generated is then transmitted to the load centers. These Load centers constitute houses, industries, hospitals, and so on. One might know that these load centers have demands. But, these demands, vary with time and never remains constant. Thus load connected to a power system network is a variable parameter.

In conclusion, we state that Change in load (demands), leads to a change in input power.

One must notice that when the input to these load centers changes, it in turn indicates that the power generated by the generator must change.

From the basic equation of machines,

Pg- Power generated
N- Rotor speed
T-Torque developed

It is observed that the power generated is directly proportional to the rotor speed (in rpm) of the generator.
Now, we also know that the rotor speed is also directly proportional to the frequency, from the relation,

f- Frequency
P- No. of poles of the machine

As a result, when the speed increases, the frequency also increases.

But this is not acceptable, as certain points need to be noted:

  1. In the power plant, we use a Synchronous Generator to produce electric power. Such machines obtain a stable mode of operation at its Synchronous speed. Thus, an increase in speed results in a change in its rotating characteristics that may lead to its damage.
  2. All power loads in the bus are designed at a rated frequency (in India 50Hz). Thus a change in frequency may lead to damage to such loads. For instance, transformers, the flux generated must remain constant,

∅ ∝ V/f
∅- Flux generated
V- Terminal voltage
f – Frequency

If the frequency decreases, it leads to an increase in flux that may result in saturation of the core.

Thus, change in frequency leads to a lot of problems to the network. Hence, we adopt the method called the LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL to maintain the frequency of the system at its rated value (as required by the Country’s Electricity Rules).

Author: Vaishnav Chathayil is pursuing his B.Tech. in Electrical and Electronics engineering at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.


How do Solar Panels work on a Van?

One of the best electrical systems nowadays is the solar panel system. For electrical connection, this system is the best one. This system normally used at home, on top of the roof to run the electronic home appliances. To add more value, this solar system now works on the transportation system. And their latest addition is working on the van.

You can use the solar products for Van and get the topmost benefits by using it in your van. Here you will also find out while traveling how a solar panel helps you and how the solar system works on van. By adjusting some settings and using some kits you can use the solar panel on your van. Let’s find out all the details and working methods of solar panels on the van.

solar panel on van

Solar Panel Meaning and its Working style

If you are choosing the solar system for the van, then you already know the meaning of the solar panel. Still, to clear your concept here is a simple idea about the solar panel system.

The solar panel is a system that works to run the electronic device through its power system. It means this device has the capability to capture the heat or rays from the sun. And, then this heat is converted into energy for use on the device. This solar system helps to capture the power and covert to DC electricity. Later this DC current will merge into AC current through this panel.

People basically use this solar panel at home. They set the panel on top of the roof and this panel does its own work when the sun hits the sky. Solar panels are also popularly used for street lighting.  But today we will see how this solar panel works on a traveling van.

Solar Panel on a Van

You can use the solar panel in a van if you want. But, it’s up to you where you will set the solar panel. Usually, people set the panel on the roof, but you can also set the panel beside or backside of the van. You can permanently adjust the panel on your van. You can set the angel of your van roof and charge it as long as you want. But first, you need to what products you actually need to set the solar panel on your van.

Things You Need to Use to Set up Solar Panel on Your Van

Some basic solar products you need to use to get the solar service on your vans. Here I will discuss some basic products that you need to use for adjusting the solar panel on your van.

● Silicon Solar Panel

This kind of solar panel is known by “Goal Zero” panels with backpacking terms. This kind of solar panel needs a larger amount of space to produce maximum energy. For example, if you need 45w for your van, you have to make a space of almost 4 feet in the van. This kind of panel is not popular anymore for the big van.

● Semi-Flexible Solar Panel

The semi-flexible panel is created by a swiss team that is much more popular than another panel. Using the semi-flexible solar panel is now a trend. This panel is lightweight and capable of consuming more energy than others. The basic panel that produces the 100 watts need a specific dimension with 16.5 lbs., where for the semi-flexible panel it only needs 4.86lbs. Also, there is a cost difference between the basic panel and semi-flexible panel.

● Controller of the Charger

Using the solar panel on your van you must need to use a charger controller. Without this controller, you will not be able to keep safe your electronic devices or equipments on the van. This charger makes sure you can control the power of the van. If your solar panels are not connected to the charge controller, then your battery will be overcharged and it will damage the appliances on the van.

Normally, we choose the charger controllers through their ratings of amperage. When we set the solar panel on the van, it produces 6amps per hour. So, if you need a 24A+ charger controller, you need to use at least four solar panels in your van.

● Inverter

You will be needed an inverter on your van when you will use the home appliances in the van. Otherwise, you don’t need the inverter. But if you are planning to choose the inverter you need to calculate the watts. Because the inverter measured by the watts. And if you can calculate how much watts you will be needed to use, then it will be easy to choose the accurate inverter for your van.

For example, if you use a blender that needs 1800w then, you need to use a string inverter that produces that many watts. So, you need to calculate the number of watts on your van and what appliances you want to use, then choose the inverter.

● Battery

This is also another useful thing on the van. Three types of battery you will find for the power van. Those are -

  • AGM Battery: This battery is the combination of glass mats. Instead of electrolytes material, you will get the glass mats around the battery.
  • Gel Battery: This battery is a combination of silica gel and sulfuric acid. But, the problem with this battery is, it doesn’t provide good service in the high-heat.
  • Lithium-Phosphate with Iron Battery: This battery is the combination of these three chemicals and provides longer service than AGM and Gel battery. For long time use, you can use this battery in your van.

So, these are all the basic solar products you need to use when you want to set up the solar panel on your van. After choosing the right products based on the criteria, now you can easily set up the solar panel on your van.

Final Word

Using a solar panel on your van has lots of benefits. Especially when you want to choose the solar panel for any traveling van, you need to determine how big will be your van is. Then you need to find out which place is the best to set up the solar panel.

Future of Solar energy in India

Using a solar panel on your van has lots of benefits. Especially when you want to choose the solar panel for any traveling van, you need to determine how big will be your van is. Then you need to find out which place is the best to set up the solar panel.


Types of capacitors and their applications

A capacitor can be thought to be like a tank that stores electric charge inside it. The more the capacitance, the more charges a capacitor is capable to store. It comes in various shapes, sizes, and of course, different ratings. It is essentially made of two plates separated by an insulator or a dielectric and has an ample number of uses, and even in our daily life, we use it without even knowing it.

This article aims to give you some insights into the types and uses of one of the most used passive electrical components: the capacitor.

Capacitors (Source: flickr by Eric Schrader)

Before we delve into its applications, let us get familiar with the types of capacitors.

Types of capacitors

While designing a circuit for a specific use, the type of capacitor plays a key role in its proper functioning. Each capacitor has a particular set of specifications, like tolerance, voltage rating, etc.

Capacitors can be broadly classified into two categories: The variable and the fixed capacitors.

Variable capacitor, on the other hand, will have a capacitance value which can be changed. This capacitor has two plates, one of which is fixed and the other one connected to a movable shaft and the capacitance is varied by changing the movable plate.

Fixed capacitor, as the name suggests, this type of capacitor has a fixed capacitance value. Both the conducting plates are immobile and therefore its capacitance value cannot be altered.

Out of these, the fixed type is more commonly used. This article deals with some of the well-known fixed capacitor types.

Ceramic Capacitors:

Ceramic capacitors use ceramic material as a dielectric. You can identify it easily, as most of it comes in a disc shape. The disc is coated with ceramic material and is placed in between the two leads. When a higher capacitance value is needed, multiple layers of ceramic materials are fused together to form the dielectric.

The main advantage of this type of capacitor is that it is a nonpolarized capacitor. This means you can connect it in any direction in your circuit.

Based on their temperature ratings and tolerance, these are classified into three categories: Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 ceramic capacitors.

Class 1 capacitors are the most stable one, with respect to its temperature tolerance and have good accuracy, while the Class 3 capacitors have relatively poor accuracy and least stability.

Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors:

Aluminium Electrolytic capacitors have a wide tolerance capacity and hence are one of the most used capacitors. Here, a liquid or gel-type material filled with ions acts as the electrolyte. This electrolyte is responsible for the larger capacitance values of these capacitor types. These are polarized capacitors and hence have to be connected carefully on to a circuit board, keeping their positive/negative leads in mind. They come in a cylindrical shape with two leads of different lengths.

The shorter lead stands for the negative terminal while the longer one stands for its positive terminal. Therefore when you use it in your circuit, remember the golden rule: "The voltage on the positive side must be higher than that of the negative side."

The electrolyte may be either solid polymer or a wet electrolyte and consist of aluminum ions. With higher capacitance values, the electrolytic capacitor comes with drawbacks too. This includes large leakage currents, high-value tolerances and equivalent resistance.

Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors:

Tantalum electrolytic capacitors are another type of electrolytic capacitor, where the anode is made of Tantalum. The use of Tantalum gives the capacitors higher tolerance value but lower maximum operating voltage than an aluminium electrolytic capacitor, it cannot be used as a direct replacement for the same.

Tantalum capacitors have a very thin dielectric layer and hence higher capacitance value per volume. It shows comparatively good stability and frequency characteristics than other capacitor types.

However, tantalum capacitors pose a risk of a potential failure mode, which may occur during voltage spikes when the anode comes in direct contact with the cathode. This may lead to a chemical reaction depending upon the strength of the energy produced during the process. Therefore while using this capacitor, you will have to use current limiters or thermal fuses as a preventive circuitry.

Film Capacitors:

Film capacitors as the name suggests have dielectrics made of thin plastic film. This film is crafted out through a sophisticated film drawing process. The film can either be metalized or an untreated one, it depends upon the demand of the capacitor characteristics. This capacitor type has good stability with low inductance and is comparatively cheaper than its counterparts. Depending on the type of dielectric used, these film capacitors are classified into various categories like polyester film, plastic film, etc.

These are non-polarized capacitors with desirable characteristics. When compared to an electrolyte capacitor, it has a longer shelf and service life, making it more reliable.

Silver Mica Capacitors:

Silver Mica capacitors use mica, a group of natural minerals as dielectric which is sandwiched between two metal sheets. The specific crystalline binding of mica helps in manufacturing very thin layers of dielectric. This capacitor is popular for its reliability and stability for a small value of capacitances. These low loss capacitors are not polarized and can be made to many high tolerances.

Now that you have got an idea of some of the capacitors and their strengths, let us discuss the prominent areas of application for these capacitors.

Which capacitor can be used where?

Ceramic capacitors

These are probably the most widely produced capacitors, due to their infinite applications. The most prominent area where these capacitors are used is in the resonant circuit of a transmitter station, which requires high precision and high power capacitor. Owing to its non-polarity and availability in a wide range of capacitances, voltage ratings, and size, it is also popular as a general-purpose capacitor. In order to reduce the RF noise in a DC motor, ceramic capacitors can be used across the brushes of the motor.

Electrolyte capacitors

For applications where high capacitances with no need of AC polarization(like a filtering circuit), electrolytic capacitors find their application. Other areas include switching mode power supply, smoothening of input and output in low pass filters. In circuits that have large amplitude and high-frequency signals, these cannot be used as these will have high ESR values.

Tantalum capacitors

These capacitors bear the advantage of having low leakage current along with high capacity and better stability and reliability. This makes them a good choice for sample and holds circuits, power supply filtering circuits of computers and cell phones. They are available in military versions that do not dry out with time and hence, act as a replacement for electrolytic capacitors in military applications.

Film capacitors

These capacitors are popular among the power electronics enthusiast. They are used in almost all the power electronic devices, x-ray machines, phase shifters, and pulsed lasers. Even the switched power supply uses a film capacitor for power factor correction. The lower voltage variants find their roles as decoupling capacitors, filters, and A/D converters. They can be used as a part of conventional circuits as well to smooth out the voltage spikes.

Silver Mica Capacitors

In areas where low capacitance is required but with a need of high stability, such as in power RF circuits, silver Mica capacitors can be used. Its high breakdown voltage makes it suitable for high voltage applications. They exhibit low losses and therefore are popularly used in high frequency tuned circuits like oscillators.

This article has covered the most prominent types of capacitors. Apart from these, there are few other types like the trimmer capacitor, air capacitor, super capacitor, etc. Trimmer capacitor is a variable type and is not that commonly used. Supercapacitors are a combination of few electrolytic capacitors to form a capacitor of a higher value that exhibits the property of both capacitors and a battery bank.

With this, we have come to the end of the article. Hope you got a clear and crisp idea of the capacitor types and their various applications.

Thank you for reading!

Author: Cicy has a master's degree in electrical and electronics engineering with a specialization in Power Electronics. She is a freelance writer who writes to simplify complicated concepts in an understandable language.


Essential Tools For Electricians To Work With Wires

Every electrician requires the right set of tools to perform their tasks no matter what that might be. In fact, there is a basic set of tools that every electrician requires. The type of tools available have improved over time there are new and better tools available. The job of an electrician is not easy but with the right set of electrical tools purpose-built for the task like a telecommunication job, networking job, etc.

electrician tools

The availability of more versatile tools makes it possible for an electrician to handle their tasks in a more efficient manner and with greater ease. Each task requires a special list of tools, for example, it is necessary to have a special set of tools when working with wires like a spark plug wire crimper. This article lists the tools an electrician might need to perform their task pertaining to wires.

List of Essentials Tools for an Electrician

An electrician often has the need to work with wires during the course of their work which requires them to have a fixed set of tools go get it right. There are many types of tools necessary like environmental testers here, etc., however, it is possible to classify the tools necessary into two types of tools like hand tools, and power tools. Here is a brief list of tools every electrician will require:

  • Pliers: This is one of the most basic tools that every electrician needs to have. There are mainly two types of pliers available, a side-cutting plier, long-nose, and needle-nose pliers. The side-cutting pliers are useful for heavy-duty cutting and crimping a connector. It is useful for a large number of applications, especially when working with wires or connecting wires.
  • Screwdrivers: A screwdriver is essential when working with various types of fasteners. In fact, there are several multipurpose screwdrivers that an electrician can opt for to use for many different applications including when working with wires.
  • Wire stripper: A wire stripper is essential when working with wires especially when making new connections with wires. This is the most basic tool for an electrician however, the design of this tool has improved over the years with curved handles, better grip, and such that they avoid motion fatigue as well.
  • Wire Crimper: The basic purpose of a crimper is to connect two wires. This is done by placing multiple wires in a connector and using a special wire crimper to make the connection. This tool is very similar to a set of pliers in appearance. The way it works is it deforms either one or both wires, holds them together and makes a joint using a connector. There are different types of crimpers like manual crimper and ratcheted crimper and the type of application dictates which one you may need.
  • Fish tapes & poles: A fish tape helps secure the wires making it safer to use. This is essential when working with live circuits. A fish-pole is essential when working with wires that are in difficult places like the ceilings, down walls, raised floors, as well as where the visibility is low.
  • Measuring Device: A large number of electricians never leave home without their special tool belt and no tool belt is complete without measuring devices of some kind.
  • Labeling machine: A labeling machine might not be essential for connecting two wires or working on wires. However, the process of labeling your work is best accomplished with the help of a labelling machine. Doing so helps save a great deal of time and effort. The labelling machine of this kind can be used for wires, as cable markers, for a rack and frames.
  • Power drills: A power drill is useful for many applications and can be either with a corded one or a cordless one. A power drill is useful to put the wires in place and also place them aesthetically. There are many benefits of using multipurpose power tools.
  • Saws: A power saw is also a very useful tool for any electrician to have.