**efficiency of the machine**to be reduced. Efficiency is the ratio of output power to the input power. Thus, in order to design rotating dc machines (or any electrical machine) with higher efficiency, it is important to study the losses occurring in them.

**Various losses in a rotating DC machine (DC generator or DC motor)**can be characterized as follows:

## Losses in a rotating DC machine

- Copper losses
- Armature Cu loss
- Field Cu loss
- Loss due to brush contact resistance
- Iron Losses
- Hysteresis loss
- Eddy current loss
- Mechanical losses
- Friction loss
- Windage loss

###
__Copper losses__

These losses occur in armature and field copper windings. **Copper losses**consist of Armature copper loss, Field copper loss and loss due to brush contact resistance.

**Armature copper loss**= I

_{a}

^{2}R

_{a}(where, I

_{a}= Armature current and R

_{a}= Armature resistance)

This loss contributes about 30 to 40% to full load losses. The armature copper loss is variable and depends upon the amount of loading of the machine.

**Field copper loss**= I

_{f}

^{2}R

_{f}(where, I

_{f}= field current and R

_{f}= field resistance)

In the case of a shunt wounded field, field copper loss is practically constant. It contributes about 20 to 30% to full load losses.

**Brush contact resistance**also contributes to the copper losses. Generally, this loss is included into armature copper loss.

###
__Iron losses (Core losses)__

As the armature core is made of iron and it rotates in a magnetic field, a small current gets induced in the core itself too. Due to this current, **eddy current loss**and

**hysteresis loss**occur in the armature iron core. Iron losses are also called as

**Core losses or magnetic losses.**

**Hysteresis loss**is due to the reversal of magnetization of the armature core. When the core passes under one pair of poles, it undergoes one complete cycle of magnetic reversal. The frequency of magnetic reversal is given by, f=P.N/120 (where, P = no. of poles and N = Speed in rpm)

The loss depends upon the volume and grade of the iron, frequency of magnetic reversals and value of flux density. Hysteresis loss is given by, Steinmetz formula:

W

_{h}=ηB

_{max}

^{1.6}fV (watts)

where, η = Steinmetz hysteresis constant

V = volume of the core in m

^{3}

**Eddy current loss**: When the armature core rotates in the magnetic field, an emf is also induced in the core (just like it induces in armature conductors), according to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Though this induced emf is small, it causes a large current to flow in the body due to the low resistance of the core. This current is known as eddy current. The power loss due to this current is known as eddy current loss.

###
__Mechanical Losses__

Mechanical losses consist of the losses due to friction in bearings and commutator. Air friction loss of rotating armature also contributes to these.These losses are about 10 to 20% of full load losses.

###
__Stray Losses__

In addition to the losses stated above, there may be small losses present which are called as stray losses or miscellaneous losses. These losses are difficult to account. They are usually due to inaccuracies in the designing and modeling of the machine. Most of the times, stray losses are assumed to be 1% of the full load.## Power Flow Diagram

The most convenient method to understand these losses in a dc generator or a dc motor is using the**power flow diagram**. The diagram visualizes the amount of power that has been lost in various types of losses and the amount of power which has been actually converted into the output. Following are the typical power flow diagrams for a dc generator and a dc motor.