Information on Solar Photovoltaic Street Lighting System & Working Principle

Solar Photovoltaic street lighting system works on photovoltaic cells or batteries, that convert sunlight or solar energy into electricity. If you come across a solar lighting system, note the dark panel on top of the light. That is the panel of the photovoltaic cells, which will convert sunlight into electricity. This electricity will then be stored in the batteries. This power can be used as and when needed. The batteries being connected to solar cells, charge themselves continuously while the solar panel is being exposed to available Sunlight. These batteries are inbuilt into these lighting systems. Hence the lamps are capable of drawing light from them. This consequently negates the solar lighting systems from any kind of need to be attached to wires, for power transmission. Hence solar street lighting systems are always wireless.

[Also Read: Solar Power System]

Being a lighting system, meant for the outdoors, solar lighting comes in many shapes and styles, which are aesthetically appealing.

solar photovoltaic street lighting system

How does a Solar lighting system work?

The working principle of these lights is fundamentally simple. During daytime, the PV cells absorb light. As the Sun goes down, an automated switch, which is a photoreceptor too, sensitive to the intensity of available light, deciphers the low Sunlight. This triggers the system to switch on the solar street lights. At this point in time, many would wonder about how will this receptor work, when the sky becomes overcast with clouds? This is a tad tricky to answer.
If the days have been cloudy, most of the time, it is unlikely that the solar cells have charged themselves abundantly. This will mean weak electricity production from these batteries, which in turn, will imply that the lights will not sustain through the night. However, if the sky becomes overcast suddenly, the photoreceptors will kick in to switch on the lights.
Here is a list of information on solar street lighting systems, for a better understanding.
  • Reach into difficult terrain: Since these lighting systems are without any hassle of wires, the installation of solar lighting systems is easy. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why these lighting systems make for an ideal system in difficult terrains. Hence it is these lighting systems are the ones reaching the most remote areas of rural India today.
  • Ideal for parks and dark places: Solar lighting systems are efficient and powerful. They are cost efficient also which makes these systems a great choice for lighting parks, playgrounds and other darker areas for security.
  • Resistant to blowouts and power outages: Solar lighting system is not dependent on any kind of external source for electricity production, like thermal electricity production. It is therefore unlikely that a storm or bad weather can get these lights to stop working due to a power outage. This is probably one of the reasons why is Solar lighting systems are preferred in areas which experience storms and power outrage often.
  • Low Maintenance: Solar lighting systems are low on maintenance cost. Most of the systems come to with a warranty of 25 years. With hardly any disturbance or human manipulation needed to get the solar lighting system going, these systems are perfectly capable of running flawlessly for years.
  • Once in a year or six months check up: Solar lighting systems need an unobstructed reception of sunlight. However, these light systems, are exposed to outside world 24*7. Hence collection of dust and grim on the surface of the PV cells surface is not surprising. This said, the outdoor lighting systems should be regularly checked to ensure that the panels are free of any accumulation of dust that may form a film of obstruction on the PV panel. Attention must also be paid to the batteries that need to be changed once in a while.
  • Enhances landscape and aesthetic lighting: Whenever it is about the lighting systems, meant for the outdoors, the stress in the aesthetic appeal is always more. This is because the normal solar lamps have a bluish hue to it, which makes it a perfect aesthetic enhancement. This creates an amazing essence of night lights.
[Also Read: The future of solar energy in India]
The solar photovoltaic lighting systems are the stepping stones towards making outdoor solar lighting a reality. The pros of these systems are many, yet much is left to be explored.